Day 1 :
Cluster University, India
Keynote: The Gizzard worm (Cheilospirura hamulosa) infection in indigenous chicken of Kashmir Valley, India
Time : 10:00-10:45
Sheikh Tanveer Salam obtained his Ph.D in Zoology with specialization in Parasitology from University of Kashmir and then did his Post Doctoral research in Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology at PGIMER, Chandigarh. He is presently working as Senior Assistant Professor in the Department of Zoology, Cluster University Srinagar. He has published about twenty research papers of national and international repute. Besides this he has also published two books with national publishers. He has also participated in International conference of Parasitology-2015 and International Symposium on “The Challenge of parasites and immunosuppression, from diagnosis to treatment”, at Philadelphia USA. He is also peer reviewer of Journal of Parasitic Diseases © Springer Journals.
Study on prevalence and tissue pathology associated with the Gizzard worm - Cheilospirura (Acuaria) hamulosa (Nematoda, Acuarioidea) was carried out for a period of two years from Jan 2016 to Dec 2017. The study was conducted on a sample size of 240 gizzards obtained from the indigenous backyard fowl collected from different localities of Kashmir valley of J&K state, India. The investigation revealed annual prevalence of the nematode for 1st and 2nd yr of study to be 5% (6/120) and 3.3% (4/120), respectively, with an overall prevalence of 4.16% (10/240). Parasitic burden was found to be low (1-2) but in spite of the low parasite burdens, the gross lesions induced by C. hamulosa were severe leading to haemorrhages, ulcerations and yellow nodules on caudoventral muscle of gizzard. Histological examination of the infected gizzard revealed discrete and coalescing, nodular and cystic lesions and granulomas in muscularis, submucosa and serosa of gizzard which contained sections of the parasite. Cellular reaction in the lesions was characterized by infiltration of large number of lymphocytes, monocytes, plasma cells, heterophils, and, in some of the sections, severe eosinophilic reaction was observed. The mucosa and submucosa showed mononuclear infiltration as well as reactive lymphoid nodules.
- Viral Infectious Diseases
Location: Amsterdam, Netherlands
University Of Sadat City, Egypt
University of sadat city, Egypt
Title: Helicobacter pylori and cryptosporidium association in diarrheic immunocompromised Egyptian children: Insight into Epidemiology and Diagnosis
Time : 11:00-11:30
Asmaa ibrahim is master student genetic and biotechnology research institute university of sadat city. I responsable for Nucleic acid Extraction using different commercially available kits .Undergo several molecular assays such as: Conventional PCR, Nested PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, PCR purification and RFLP assay.Operating, setting up, maintaining and troubleshooting of all instrumental system at LMMP such as incubators , deep freezers , Laminar flow cabinet , thermo-cycler and electrophoresis system. Troubleshoot and estimate results. Participate in organizing workshops and training programs that are held at LMMP includes; data filing, lab preparations and practical work organizing.
H.pylori and Cryptosporidium are recognized as the most prevalent pathogens in children especially immunocompromised. Considering the necessity to diagnose them precocious depends mostly on rapid tests such as immunochromatographic test (ICT) and microscopy. However, the sensitivity and specificity varies with different techniques and different kits utilized. This study was obtained to determine H.pylori prevalence and its co-existence with cryptosporidium in immunocompromised children for their detection in stool and to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of different methods for Cryptosporidium spp and H.pylori diagnosis. Single fecal samples were collected from 51 immunocompromised Egyptian pediatric patients complaining with diarrhea, from February 2016 to June 2017. All stool specimens were microscopically examined for parasitic scanning. Using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain (MZN) for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts detection. Coproantigens were detected H.pylori and Cryptosporidium. Copro-DNAs detection of H.pylori and Cryptosporidium were performed using nested-PCR assays. H. pylori and cryptosporidium co-infection was detected in 63.6%. Fever and weight loss were significantly associated symptoms combined with diarrhea. PCR yielded the highest detection rates (21.6%), compared MZN staining method (5.9%) and ICT coproantigen detection (11.8%).PCR yield for H.pylori also higher rates (51%) than copro antigen(17.6%). Our data provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of H.pylori infection when associated with Cryptosporidium in immunocompromised children. PCR remains the gold standard for diagnosis of H.pylori and Cryptosporidium .still further investigations are needed with an emphasis upon determining correlation with gut microbiomes.
Cluster University, India
Time : 11:30-12:00
Showkat Ahmad Wani has completed his PhD from Kashmir University in 2008and. is presently working as sr. Assistant Professor at Higher Education department posted at S. P. College, Srinagar. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals of National and International repute.
In any geographical area, surveys of the prevalence of intestinal helminths are necessary to suggest appropriate control measures. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections in children of the Kashmir valley and to identify the risk factors. Stool samples were collected from 2256 children from rural as well as urban areas of the Kashmir valley. The samples were examined by simple smear and zinc sulphate concentrationmethods. Intensity of the infection was quantified by Stoll’s egg-counting technique. Infection by at least one intestinal helminth was found in 71.18% of the sampled population. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was highest(68.30%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (27.92%), Enterobius vermicularis (12.67%) and Taenia saginata (4.60%). Light (57.1%) to moderate (42.8%) intensity of infection was observed for A. lumbricoides, while the majority of the infected children (92.3%) harboured a light intensity of infection for T. trichiura. The agegroup, rural or urban residence, type of water source, boiled or unboiled water, type of defecation site, level of personal hygiene and maternal education were associated with helminth infection. Adequate control measures are urgentlyneeded to combat the high prevalence of intestinal helminths and risk factors in the children of Kashmir valley.
Khon Kaen and Mahasarakham University, Thailand
After obtaining his PhD from Imperial College, University of Londom, Paiboon Sithithaworn has been working in Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicien, Khon Kaen University since 1984 and became the member of the Cholangiocarcinoma Research Institute, Khon Kaen University since 1990 to present. He has published more than 190 papers in academic journals and served as consultants for various government and non government organisations
Opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remain important health problems in Southeast Asia and in Thailand alone an estimated death is up to 20,000 per year. Screening of opisthorchiasis by an accurate diagnosis and treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) is a prerequisite for reduction and control of CCA. Since standard parasitological diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini infection is insensitive and antigen detection in urine has been suggested as an alternative method. Our recent field testing in Thailand demonstrated that urine antigen assay correlated well with copro-antigen detection and had superior diagnostic performance than fecal examination. In addition to screening and prevalence mapping, we applied this new antigen assay to monitor the status of opisthorchiasis after chemotherapeutic control in endemic community in Thailand. A period of curative treatment can be assessed at 4 weeks after praziquantel treatment. In a post treatment follow up study for 52 weeks, emergence of reinfection can be detected by urine antigen assay and greater reinfection rates were obtained compring to fecal examination. Due to the ease and noninvasiveness of sample collection, the urine assay has high potential for clinical diagnosis as well as population screening in the program for the control and elimination of opisthorchiasis.
University of Greenwich, United Kingdom.
Anine Boucher is a Master student from the University of Greenwich and has recently graduated with a BSc. in Biomedical Science. Her current research is currently on the effects of Iron chelation on Fpn1 and TfR1 expression during Leishmania infection of human cells. Anine aims to become a researcher in tropical diseases when she finished her degree.
Leishmaniasis are tropical diseases whose manifestation ranges from self-healing cutaneous lesions (CL) to visceralising forms (VL) which is lethal when left untreated. The diseases are caused by over 20 species of protozoan parasites known as Leishmania. Once inside the host, parasites can enter different immune cells, however, replication and spread is only known to occur within macrophages. Parasites survival and disease development are linked to the immune response to infection. Both mammalian cells and intracellular parasites will require iron for survival. Although the role of iron on infection has been previously investigated in some Leishmania species, contradictory results means that whether Iron protects from infection or supports it remains unclear.In this study, the effect of iron deficiency on Leishmania survival inside macrophages was evaluated. Two Leishmania species (L. mexicana and L. aethiopica), both responsible for CL were used to infect THP-1 cells in presence of an Iron chelator (DFO). The effect of Iron chelation on parasites infection, intracellular Iron concentration was analyzed over a period of 72 hours.The percentage of infected cells following DFO-treatment significantly increased both in L. mexicana (p=0.0034) and L. aethiopica (p-value of 0.0092) when compared with untreated suggesting that intracellular parasites might protect their host from iron deprivation. Quantification of intracellular ferritin concentration seems to support this hypothesis as showed an increase in treated cells compared with untreated as well as uninfected controls. Further analysis is being carried out to investigate parasites effect on expression of iron transporters.
Agriculture and Marine Resources Affairs, Bahrain.
Abdalla Fadlalla Azrug has completed his PhD in Veterinary Helminthology at Ankara University, Turkey in 2011. He worked as the director for Fashir and Nyala Regional Veterinary Reearch laboratories in Sudan from 1999-2012. Recently he is the Head of the Veterinary Laboratories Group, Directorate of Animal Health and control, Agriculture and Marine Resources Affairs, Manama, Bahrain, a governmental diagnostic and research laboratory. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and scientific international conference books participating in many international conferences related to the field of veterinary science and one health. Also he acted in the position of OIE delegate for Kingdom of Bahrain from 2014 -2017.
This study was carried out during the daily routine complains and checking up for the diagnostic tests done for samples received from some local domestic pigeon farms in Bahrain. The study was conducted throughout 2017 from records of tested samples at the Veterinary Laboratory purposed for determining, the species and intensity of intestinal parasites detected during the yearly routine samples examinations. A total of 31 domestic pigeons (19 females and 12 males) were tested. The sexes differentiation was recognized through post mortem necropsy by obsrving the developed left ovaries in females and testicles in male pigeons. Domestic pigeons are kept in closed cages and semi-closed backyard small farms in Bahrain where the domestic pigeons production is growing as small scaled commercial purposes and consumptive proteins source or social tourist.
Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan
Professor Seki has been graduated from Department of Medicine, Nagasaki University, as Medical Doctor, with the specialties including Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases, and Infection Control. Later on he obtained his post-graduation, started working at Osaka University. Presently he has been working at the Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai City, Japan.
Influenza-related pneumonia is an important complication of influenza, and it has been suggested that excessive inflammatory reactions, including “cytokine storm”, may contribute to the mechanisms underlying severe pneumonia.Human data and mouse model which co-infected with influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae show increased severity of illness caused by the elevation of cytokines/chemokines, and mice with genetic knock-out of immune molecules such as Toll-like receptor-related IRAK-M also show hyper-immune responses and reduced survival following influenza virus infection. Such findings suggest that innate immune responses and excessive neutrophil activation might be related to severe inflammatory changes in the lungs, and immune-modulatory therapy, including macrolides, may thus be effective against severe influenza-related pneumonia. In Japan, we had five anti-influenza agents and could choose each agent dependent on influenza and pneumonia severity. Among them, peramivir can be administered by drip infusion, and used not only for the most severe patients, but also for the ambulatory outpatients who have some medical issues. In addition, new anti-influenza agent: ‘Baloxavir marboxil’ which is ‘Cap-Dependent Endonuclease Inhibitor’ has been started to use. The insurance system supports early administration of them with antibiotics, and as a results, we might be able to have very low influenza-related mortality.
University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Dr. Janice R. Perussi is PhD in Physical-Chemistry by the University of São Paulo. She is a professor and researcher at the Institute of Chemistry of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. She has experience with photosensitizers and their photodynamic properties, photo-toxicity, intracellular accumulation, photodegradation, photoinactivation of microrganisms and biofilms besides drug delivery systems. She has published more than 100 papers and has been serving as referee for a number of scientific journals.
Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (A-PDT) is a promising alternative to fight local infections through the combination of a photosensitizer (PS), molecular oxygen and visible light producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to microorganisms death. A-PDT was used to photoinactivate mono and multispecies biofilms of E. coli; E. faecalis and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using multivariate analysis by Full Factorial Design 23 (FFD) and new chlorins: CHL-OH-A, CHL-PH-A and CHL-T synthesized in Brazil. Photodynamic treatment was performed using the FFD 23 incubated by 20, 30 and 40 min, PS concentrations of 5; 7.5 and 10 μmol L-1 and light doses of 15, 22 and 30 J cm-2 at 660 nm, subjecting the results to two-way ANOVA. Fluorescence and SEM were used to verify the membrane integrity and to confirm the photooxidation. Chlorins were effective for photoinactivation reducing above 3 logCFU mL-1 for all biofilm models. ROS photooxidize a wide variety of biomolecules, which was observed by Raman microspectroscopy (mRaman) besides the presence of characteristic carotenoid peaks (1550 and 1503 cm-1), which is an antioxidant pigment present in MRSA explaining a greater resistance in relation to E. faecalis, even though being gram-positive. FT-IV showed the photoxidation of the phospholipid membrane (1740 cm-1) of all bacteria after A-PDT. The highest reduction obtained was Δ7.4 logCFU mL-1 for E.faecalis, followed by 5.2; 4.5 and 3.6 for MRSA, multispecies and E. coli. A-PDI in combination with multivariate analysis and new chlorins presents potential to combat bacterial biofilms.