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5th Annual Meeting on Infectious Diseases, Microbiology & Beneficial Microbes, will be organized around the theme “”
Infectious Diseases 2024 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Infectious Diseases 2024
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Parasitic micro-organisms are also known as Protozoa that cause tropical diseases for example amoebic dysentery, Trypanosomiasis(sleeping sickness), Trichomoniasis, Giardiasis, Leishmaniasis, and Toxoplasmosis.
Medicines used to kill protozoa (Parasitic micro-organisms) are used to treat these types of infections. The doctor will do various tests to identify the protozoa and choose the appropriate antiprotozoal.
- Daraprim (pyrimethamine)
- Fasigyn (tinidazole)
- Flagyl tablets (metronidazole)
- Metronidazole tablets and suspension
- Norzol suspension (metronidazole)
- Pentacarinat injection
- Pentostam (sodium stibogluconate)
The infectious disease found in infant babies is termed Pediatric infectious disease. If a child has an indefatigable disease because he was affected by an infectious agent, a pediatric infectious diseases specialist has the experience and qualifications to help a pediatrician diagnose and treat the child in a correct way. The pediatric infectious diseases specialist provides treatment to children from birth till their teen years.
Infections may result in raising the risk of cancer in different ways. Some of the viruses directly affect the genes inside cells that regulate their growth. These viruses can penetrate their own genes into the cell, causing the cell to grow enormously. These infections may lead to long-term inflammation in a part of the body. This results in changes in the affected cells, which can eventually lead to the occurrence of cancer.
Some infections can suppress or decrease a person’s immune system, which normally helps to protect the body from foreign elements and thus increasing the chance of cancer.
The risk of developing cancer is also influenced by other factors such as, infection with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) bacteria can increase your risk of stomach cancer, but what you eat, whether or not you smoke, and other factors also comes under the account.
These are infectious diseases found in animals. Safety and quality are major concerns of the cattle industry as to provide food for the growing population around the globe. However, the cattle industry’s efficiency is far more from optimum. Infectious diseases in animals may lead to their tremendous suffering and crippling economic dropping to the people who rely on these animals for their livelihoods.
Even more than 60% of all infectious diseases of animals can also affect human beings. These types of infections are called "zoonotic infections" For example Avian Influenza. Few other diseases are like Rabies, West Nile Virus, Hantavirus, Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis also known as ("Mad Cow Disease"), Lyme disease, etc.
The test is led by presenting symptoms in individual with an infectious disease, but it always needs extra diagnostics ways to confirm it. Some symptoms are indicative of particular diseases and are called pathognomonic signs.
Microscopy is another primary tool in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Virtually all the culture techniques rely on microscopic tests for definitive confirmation of the infectious agent. Microscopy may be carried out with simple instruments, such as the compound light microscope, or with an electron microscope. Samples obtained from patients are viewed under a light microscope and often lead to identification. Microscopy can be made exquisitely specific when used in combination with antibody-centered techniques.
Antigen-antibody reaction mainly focuses on the rapid detection of proteins. Antibodies recognize specific proteins based on their structure and content, and can be very specific, binding to only a small part of an antigen (known as the epitope), and discriminating between highly similar epitopes. When a host is exposed to an antigen then the host will develop an array of antibodies so that each binds to a separate epitope of the antigen. These antibodies will vary in specificity.
Many proteolytic enzymes are known to enhance the antigen-antibody reactions, but the most prominently used are papain, ficin, and bromelain.
In microorganisms, several kinds of recombination are known to take place. The most common form of them is general recombination, which involves the reciprocal exchange of DNA between a pair of DNA sequences. It takes place everywhere in the microbial chromosome and is represented by the exchanges taking place in bacterial transformation, bacterial recombination, and its transduction.
Prevent infection before it begins and avoid spreading the infection to others by these easy steps:
- Wash your hands well with soap. Dry your hands thoroughly.
- Cover your mouth and nose with a cloth when you sneeze, then dispose of it. If nothing is handy, cough or sneeze into your elbow rather than into your hands.
- Wash and bandage all cuts. Any serious cut or animal or human bite should be treated by a doctor.
- Do not pick at healing wounds or squeeze pimples this makes the infection increase rapidly.
- Don't share dishes, glasses, or eating utensils with others.
Over the last 20 years, increasing emphasis has been placed on health communication strategies that are collaboratively designed, implemented, and evaluated. Eventually, various successful strategic health campaigns have been developed, particularly in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome arena.
We need to be critically aware of these issues while communicating with patients and their caregivers, select health issues that are appropriate to the client's level of understanding, and provide a systematic approach by utilizing varied mechanisms (e.g., printed material, displays, videos, and discussions) to educate and increase awareness in and stress motivating principles, cultural relevance, and feasibility.
Conventionally, the stabilization of prophylactic vaccines has been a main attraction for the scientific and research communities. International health care organizations have provided funds for this effort for more than forty years. Moreover, stability has been linked with the temperature surrounding the vaccine vial, with not much attention being paid towards coinciding environmental parameters.
Recently, the advantages of the Electronic Time-Temperature Indicator [ETTI] have been well described. In all probability, ETTI would not be proficient enough at monitoring the evaporative and radioactive transfer of heat from the atmosphere. Monitoring temperature without a simultaneous estimate of humidity is often very erratic.
Sexually transmitted diseases/ sexually transmitted infections are infectious diseases that are transmitted through sexual contact with an infected individual and also transmitted during vaginal or other types of sexual intercourse including oral and anal sex.
Examples of sexually transmitted diseases include:
- Hepatitis B
- Crabs(pubic lice)
- human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS)chlamydia
- Genital Herpes
- Genital Warts
- Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
- Trichomoniasis (a parasitic infection)
- Molluscum Contagiosum
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
- Syphilis, Gonorrhea
Epidemiology studies the patterns, causes, and effects of health issues. It is the cornerstone of public health and informs policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help with study design, data collection, interpretation, statistical analysis of data, and dissemination. Epidemiology helped to develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies, and to a lesser extent basic research in the biological sciences.
An Infectious disease occurrence that has increased rapidly in the past few decades or threatens to increase is termed as emerging. These diseases include new infections, previously unrecognized infections, and old infections reappearing due to antimicrobial resistance, public health issues, and unhygienic conditions.
Antimicrobials/Antibiotics/Antibacterials are used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They might either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Few antibiotics have antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza and their inappropriate use allows the emergence of resistant organisms.
Plant pathology is the study of diseases found in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that are the source of infectious diseases include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes, and parasitic plants. Plant pathology includes the study of pathogen recognition, etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance. Here we also get to know that how plants diseases can affect humans and how can we prevent human beings of all demographics to get affected by these.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms also known as prokaryotes. There are estimated to be at least none nonillion bacteria on our planet. A nonillion means one followed by 30 zeros. Much of Earth's biomass is made up of bacteria only.
Bacteria can survive in almost any kind of environment, from extreme heat conditions to intense cold, and some can even survive in radioactive waste.
Some of the Diseases are:
- Bubonic Plague
Here are some examples of bacterial infections:
- Bacterial meningitis
- Otitis media
- Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
- Food Poisoning
- Eye Infections
- Urinary Tract Infections
- Skin Infections
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The most common Infections are Viral Infections, Bacterial Infections, and Fungal Infections.
Viral infections are caused by a virus that transmits in our body. Millions of types of viruses are estimated to exist, but only 5,000 types of them have been identified. Viruses contain a small piece of genetic code and they are protected by a coat of protein and fat.
- The common cold is mainly caused due to rhinovirus, coronavirus, and Adenovirus viruses
- Encephalitis and Meningitis are caused due to Entero-viruses and herpes viruses
- Warts and skin infections are caused due to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV).
- Gastroenteritis by the Nova Virus
Other viral conditions are:
- Zika virus
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
- Hepatitis C
- Dengue Fever
- H1N1 swine flu
- The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV)
Fungus is a multi-cellular parasite that can decompose and then absorb organic matter using enzymes. There are approximately 51 million kinds of fungus present on earth.
Many fungal infections appear on the upper layers of the skin, and some progress to the deeper layers as well. Inhaling fungal spores can also lead to systemic fungal infections, such as thrush, or candidiasis.
Individuals with a higher risk of developing a fungal infection include people who:
- Use antibiotics for a long time.
- Having a weak Immune system, for example, HIV or AIDS, Diabetes, Chemotherapy Treatment, and those who have undergone organ transplantation, as they take medications to prevent their body from rejecting the new organ transplanted.
Examples of fungal infections are:
Valley fever or Coccidioidomycosis
- Athlete's Foot
- some eye infections
We cannot prevent all Infectious diseases from getting into our bodies, but the following steps can reduce the risk of transmission:
- We should always wash our hands before and after having food,
- Always clean surface areas and don’t leave room-temperature food exposed when cooking.
- Always take recommended vaccinations and be updates regarding the same.
- Take antibiotics when prescribed, and complete the recommended course even if symptoms improve earlier than anticipated.
- The practice of safe sex by getting STD checks from time to time, use of condoms, or abstaining altogether.
- Avoid sharing items such as toothbrushes, combs, razor blades, drinking glasses, and kitchen utensils.
- Follow doctor's advice about traveling or working while you are ill, as you could infect others as well.