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Bacterial infections are caused by harmful bacteria invading the body, leading to various diseases and health issues. Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms that can live in diverse environments and can be both beneficial and harmful to humans. When pathogenic bacteria enter the body and multiply, they can cause illness by producing toxins, attacking cells, and triggering immune responses Gram-positive Bacteria: These bacteria have a thick cell wall and include pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus (causes skin infections, pneumonia, and more) and Streptococcus pyogenes (causes strep throat, skin infections, and more Gram-negative Bacteria: These bacteria have a thinner cell wall and include pathogens like Escherichia coli (causes UTIs, gastrointestinal infections, and more) and Salmonella (causes food poisoning).Anaerobic Bacteria: These bacteria can survive without oxygen and are often found in deep wounds and the gastrointestinal tract. Examples include Clostridium difficile (causes severe diarrhea) and Bacteroides fragilis (causes intra-abdominal infections).Certainly! Bacterial diseases are illnesses caused by harmful bacteria invading the body and triggering an immune response. These diseases can affect various parts of the body and can range from mild to severe. Here's some information about common bacterial diseases Tuberculosis (TB): Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. Symptoms include coughing, chest pain, fever, fatigue, and weight loss.  Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): UTIs are commonly caused by Escherichia coli bacteria but can also be caused by other bacteria. Symptoms include frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or bloody urine, and pelvic pain. Salmonellosis: Salmonellosis is caused by various strains of Salmonella bacteria. It is typically contracted by consuming contaminated food or water. Symptoms include  diarrhea fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting

Viral infections and diseases are caused by viruses, which are tiny infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms. Viruses can infect various types of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. Here's some information about viral infections and diseases:Influenza (Flu): Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection caused by influenza viruses. Symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, fatigue, and sometimes vomiting and diarrhea.Ebola Virus Disease: Ebola virus disease is a severe and often fatal viral infection caused by Ebola viruses. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, muscle pain, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, and internal and external bleeding.Zika Virus Infection: Zika virus infection is primarily spread through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Symptoms are usually mild but can include fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can lead to birth defects.Herpes: Herpes viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) cause infections that result in cold sores (HSV-1) or genital herpes (HSV-2). Symptoms include painful sores, itching, and flu-like symptoms during outbreaks.


Fungal infections are caused by fungi, which are a type of microorganism. Fungi are present in the environment and can infect various parts of the body, leading to a range of fungal diseases Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis): Athlete's foot is a common fungal infection of the skin, primarily affecting the feet. It causes itching, burning, redness, and peeling of the skin, particularly between the toes.Ringworm (Tinea Corporis): Ringworm is a fungal infection of the skin that can affect anypartofthe body. It typically appears as a red, ring-shaped rash with clear skin in the center and can be itchy or painful.Yeast Infections: Yeast infections are caused by an overgrowth of the fungus Candida, commonly Candida albicans. They can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth (oral thrush), genitals (vaginal yeast infection), and skin folds. Symptoms include itching, redness, swelling, and white discharge.


Parasitic infections :are illnesses caused by parasites, organisms that live on or inside another organism (the host) and rely on it for nourishment and survival. These parasites can be protozoa, helminths (worms), or ectoparasites like ticks and lice. Parasitic infections can occur through various routes such as consumption of contaminated food or water, insect bites, or contact with contaminated soil. Some common parasitic infections include:Malaria: Caused by the Plasmodium parasite and transmitted through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria can cause fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.Toxoplasmosis: Caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, often found in cat feces. It can be transmitted through contaminated food or water and may cause flu-like symptoms or serious complications, particularly in pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Tapeworm infections: Caused by various species of tapeworms, often transmitted through undercooked or contaminated meat. Symptoms can vary depending on the species but may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and nutritional deficiencies.Treatment for parasitic infections typically involves medication specific to the type of parasite involved. Prevention often includes good hygiene practices, proper food handling, avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, and using insect repellent to prevent insect bites

Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of rare, progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormal forms of proteins called prions. Unlike viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites, prions do not contain DNA or RNA Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD): The most common prion disease in humans, CJD can occur in sporadic, familial, or acquired forms. Symptoms include rapidly progressive dementia, muscle stiffness, involuntary movements, and eventually, coma and death.Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD): This form of CJD is believed to be caused by consumption of products contaminated with prions, particularly beef contaminated with the agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease." vCJD has a younger age of onset compared to classical CJD and may present with psychiatric symptoms early in the disease course.Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Syndrome (GSS): This rare inherited prion disease typically presents with ataxia, dementia, and other neurological symptoms. It is caused by mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP).Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI): Another rare inherited prion disease, FFI is characterized by progressive insomnia, autonomic dysfunction, and dementia. It is also caused by mutations in the PRNP gene.There is currently no cure for prion diseases, and they are invariably fatal. Treatment is primarily supportive and focused on managing symptoms and providing comfort care. Prevention of acquired forms of prion diseases involves measures such as avoiding consumption of contaminated meat products and implementing strict infection control measures in healthcare settings to prevent iatrogenic transmission.

Probiotics and prebiotics : are both related to the health of your gut, but they work in different ways.Probiotics are live microorganisms, typically bacteria or yeast, that provide health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. These beneficial bacteria are similar to the microorganisms that naturally reside in your gut. Probiotics can be found in certain foods like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, kimchi, and other fermented foods, as well as in supplement form. They help maintain a healthy balance of gut bacteria by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria. Probiotics have been studied for their potential to improve digestion boost the immune system, alleviate symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and even support mental health.Prebiotics, on the other hand, are a type of fiber that serves as fuel for the beneficial bacteria in your gut. They are essentially food for probiotics. Prebiotics are not digested by the human body but instead pass through the digestive tract to the colon, where they are fermented by gut bacteria. This fermentation process produces short-chain fatty acids, which provide energy for the cells lining the colon and help maintain a healthy gut environment. Prebiotics are naturally found in many plant-based foods such as bananas, onions, garlic, leeks, asparagus, chicory root, and whole grains.Consuming both probiotics and prebiotics as part of a balanced diet can help support gut health and overall well-being.

Biofertilizers: are substances that contain living microorganisms which, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. They are considered eco-friendly alternatives to chemical fertilizers, as they harness the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, and potassium mobilization.

There are several types of biofertilizers:

Nitrogen-fixing biofertilizers: These contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria, such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). These bacteria have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), which can be used by plants. They are particularly beneficial for leguminous crops like soybeans, peas, and beans.Phosphorus-solubilizing biofertilizers: These contain phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, such as bacteria (e.g., Bacillus, Pseudomonas) and fungi (e.g., Aspergillus, Penicillium), which help solubilize insoluble forms of phosphorus in the soil, making it available to plants. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development.Potassium-mobilizing biofertilizers: These contain microorganisms that help mobilize potassium in the soil, making it more accessible to plants. This can include bacteria like Bacillus mucilaginosus and fungi like Aspergillus niger.Micronutrient-enhancing biofertilizers: Some biofertilizers are designed to enhance the availability of micronutrients (such as iron, zinc, manganese, and copper) to plants. These biofertilizers often contain beneficial microorganisms that can solubilize or chelate these micronutrients, making them more easily absorbed by plants

Benefits of using biofertilizers include improved soil fertility, reduced dependence on chemical fertilizers, increased crop yield, and environmental sustainability. However, the effectiveness of biofertilizers can vary depending on factors such as soil conditions, climate, crop type, and the specific strains of microorganisms used. Additionally, proper application methods and timing are crucial for maximizing their benefits.

Gene expression is the process by which information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, typically a protein or RNA molecule. It involves the transcription of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA) and the subsequent translation of mRNA into a functional protein. However, not all genes code for proteins; some code for non-coding RNAs or regulatory elements.The process of gene expression can be summarized in several key steps:Transcription: In the cell nucleus, the DNA double helix is unwound by enzymes, exposing the sequence of nucleotide bases. RNA polymerase, an enzyme, then binds to a specific region of the DNA called the promoter, initiating the synthesis of mRNA. During transcription, RNA polymerase reads the DNA template strand and synthesizes a complementary RNA strand by adding complementary RNA nucleotides (A, U, C, and G). The resulting mRNA molecule carries the genetic information from the DNA to the cytoplasm.RNA processing (in eukaryotes): The newly synthesized pre-mRNA undergoes several modifications before it can be translated into protein. These modifications include capping (addition of a 5' cap), splicing (removal of introns and joining of exons), and polyadenylation (addition of a poly-A tail at the 3' end). These modifications stabilize the mRNA molecule and facilitate its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.Translation: In the cytoplasm, mRNA binds to ribosomes, where the genetic code carried by the mRNA is translated into a specific sequence of amino acids, forming a polypeptide chain. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules bring amino acids to the ribosome, where they are incorporated into the growing polypeptide chain according to the sequence of codons on the mRNA. Translation continues until a stop codon is reached, at which point the ribosome disassociates from the mRNA, and the newly synthesized protein is released.Gene expression is a tightly regulated process that can be influenced by various factors, including environmental signals, developmental cues, and cellular signaling pathways. Regulation of gene expression allows cells to respond to changing internal and external conditions and ensures that genes are expressed at the right time and in the right amount for proper cellular function. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Mutations: can sometimes have negative consequences, especially if they occur in essential genes or regulatory regions of the genome. Mutations  that disrupt critical cellular functions or lead to the malfunctioning of important proteins can contribute to genetic disorders, diseases, or even cancer.In the context of genetic disorders, mutations  can cause a wide range of conditions, from relatively mild to severe, depending on the specific genes affected and the nature of the mutation. Examples include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, Huntington's disease, and many others. Additionally, mutations can accumulate over time, especially in cells that undergo frequent divisions, such as those in the skin or the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Accumulated mutations can increase the risk of cancer by disrupting the normal regulation of cell growth and division.While mutations are a natural and inevitable part of biological processes, they can sometimes have detrimental effects. However, it's important to remember that mutations also contribute to genetic diversity, which is essential for the long-term survival and adaptation of populations to changing environments Researchers continue to study mutations and their effects to better understand their role in health and disease and to develop strategies for preventing or treating genetic disorders.Mutations are changes in the genetic code of living things. They happen naturally or can be caused by things like radiation or chemicals. Mutations can be good, bad, or have no effect at all. Good mutations can help organisms adapt to their environment, while bad ones can cause diseases or disorders.

Some mutations are small, like changing one letter in the genetic code, while others can involve big chunks of DNA.


Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)And  Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):are infections that are typically spread through sexual activity, including vaginal, anal, or oral sex. They can be caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi, and some common examples include:Chlamydia: Caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, chlamydia is one of the most common STDs. It can infect the genital tract and may cause symptoms such as discharge, pain during urination, and pelvic pain. If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility.Gonorrhea: Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, gonorrhea can infect the genital tract, rectum, and throat. Symptoms may include discharge, pain or burning during urination, and in some cases, no symptoms at all. If untreated, gonorrhea can also lead to PID and infertility.Syphilis: Caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, syphilis progresses through several stages and can cause a wide range of symptoms, including painless sores (chancre), rash, fever, and neurological complications if left untreated.Human papillomavirus (HPV): HPV is a group of viruses that can cause genital warts and various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and throat cancer. Many people with HPV do not develop symptoms, but the virus can still be transmitted to others.Herpes simplex virus (HSV): HSV type 1 and type 2 can cause genital herpes, which is characterized by painful sores or blisters in the genital area. The virus can be transmitted even when there are no visible symptoms.HIV/AIDS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system, weakening the body's ability to fight off infections and diseases. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.Prevention of STDs includes practicing safe sex by using condoms consistently and correctly, limiting the number of sexual partners, and getting tested regularly for STDs, especially if you are sexually active. Early detection and treatment of STDs are important for preventing complications and reducing the risk of transmission to others.

COVID-19: "Coronavirus Disease 2019," is an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, and quickly spread globally, leading to a pandemic declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020.COVID-19 primarily spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and it can also spread by touching surfaces contaminated with the virus and then touching the face, especially the mouth, nose, or eyes. The symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild to severe and may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle or body aches, headache, loss of taste or smell, sore throat, congestion, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea. Severe cases can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), organ failure, and death, particularly in older adults and those with underlying health conditions.

To control the spread of COVID-19, public health measures such as wearing masks, practicing physical distancing, frequent handwashing, and avoiding large gatherings have been recommended by health authorities worldwide. Vaccination campaigns have also been launched globally to provide immunity against the virus, with multiple COVID-19 vaccines authorized for emergency use.The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound social, economic, and public health impacts, disrupting daily life, straining healthcare systems, and causing significant loss of life worldwide. Efforts to control the spread of the virus and mitigate its effects continue through vaccination campaigns, public health interventions, and ongoing research into treatments and prevention strategies.

Antigen-antibody reactions: Also known as antigen-antibody interactions or immune reactions, are fundamental processes in the body's immune system. Here's how they work:

Antigen: An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response in the body. Antigens can be foreign substances like bacteria, viruses, or toxins, as well as non-infectious substances like pollen, food proteins, or even cells from another person (in the case of organ transplants). Antigens are typically large molecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides, or glycoproteins, that are recognized by the immune system as foreign.

Antibody: An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen. Antibodies are produced by specialized white blood cells called B cells, and they are specifically tailored torecognize and bind to a particular antigen. Each antibody has a unique binding site, known as the antigen-binding site or paratope, which matches the shape and chemical structure of a specific antigen.Antigen-antibody reactions are central to many aspects of the immune response, including immunity to infectious diseases, allergic reactions, autoimmune disorders, and the detection of antigens in diagnostic tests such as immunoassays and serological tests. Understanding these interactions is crucial for developing vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic tools for various diseases.

Advancements in vaccines and therapeutics: have been significant in recent years, with ongoing research and innovation aimed at improving efficacy, safety, and accessibility. Here are some notable advancements in both areas:Vaccines:

mRNA Vaccines: mRNA (messenger RNA) vaccines, such as the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, represent a ground breaking technology that uses a small piece of genetic material to instruct cells to produce a protein that triggers an immune response against a specific pathogen. mRNA vaccines offer several advantages, including rapid development, scalability, and potential for targeting a wide range of diseases.Vector-Based Vaccines: Vector-based vaccines, such as the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines, use harmless viruses or viral vectors to deliver genetic material from the target pathogen into cells, stimulating an immune response. These vaccines are particularly useful for targeting viruses that are difficult to produce using traditional methods.Thermostable Vaccines: Developing vaccines that can withstand higher temperatures without losing efficacy is critical for distribution and storage in regions with limited access to refrigeration. Thermostable vaccines, which remain stable at higher temperatures, are being developed for diseases such as COVID-19, Ebola, and malaria.


Monoclonal Antibodies: Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced antibodies that can target specific proteins on the surface of pathogens or diseased cells. Monoclonal antibody therapies have been developed for various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases like COVID-19.Antiviral Drugs: Antiviral drugs are medications that target specific steps in the viral replication cycle, inhibiting the virus's ability to multiply and spread. Recent advancements in antiviral drug development have led to the discovery of new drug targets and the development of more effective and better-tolerated antiviral therapies.

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi. These diseases can spread directly or indirectly from person to person, through contact with contaminated surfaces, air, water, or vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Some examples of infectious diseases Bacterial Infections: These include diseases like tuberculosis, cholera, syphilis, and strep throat Viral Infections: Examples include influenza, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, COVID-19, and the common cold. Parasitic Infections: Malaria, amoebiasis, and giardiasis are some examples of diseases caused by parasites .Fungal Infections: Candidiasis (yeast infection), aspergillosis, and ringworm are caused by fungi .Prevention and control of infectious diseases involve various strategies such as vaccination, sanitation, hygiene practices, vector control, and antimicrobial treatments. Effective public health measures are crucial for managing outbreaks and reducing the burden of infectious diseases on society.

Cancer: Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. These cells can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to the formation of tumors  and impairing normal bodily functions. Cancer can occur in virtually any part of the body and can have various causes, including genetic factors, environmental exposures (such as tobacco smoke or ultraviolet radiation), lifestyle choices (like diet and physical activity), and infectious agents (such as certain viruses).Common types of cancer include breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and skin cancer (melanoma). Treatment options for cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Prevention strategies for cancer often focus on lifestyle modifications such as maintaining a healthy diet, exercising regularly, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, practicing sun safety, and getting recommended screenings for early detection. Research into the causes, prevention, and treatment of cancer continues to advance, offering hope for improved outcomes and better quality of life for those affected by this disease.

Veterinary infectious diseases: Refer to diseases that affect animals, including pets, livestock, wildlife, and sometimes even humans (zoonotic diseases). These diseases can have significant implications for animal health, welfare, and productivity, as well as public health. Veterinary infectious diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi.

Here are some common examples of veterinary infectious diseases:

Canine Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, causing respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. It can be fatal, especially in puppies and unvaccinated dogs. Feline Pan leukopenia (Feline Distemper): A viral disease that affects cats, causing fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, and a decrease in white blood cells. It is highly contagious and can be fatal, particularly in kittens .Rabies: A viral disease that affects mammals, including dogs, cats, and wildlife. Rabies is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and affects the central nervous system, leading to neurological symptoms and ultimately death. It is zoonotic, meaning it can be transmitted to humans.Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. FMD causes fever, blisters in the mouth and on the feet, and can lead to significant economic losses due to trade restrictions.