Antigen- Antibody reactions

Antigen-antibody reactions: Also known as antigen-antibody interactions or immune reactions, are fundamental processes in the body's immune system. Here's how they work:

Antigen: An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response in the body. Antigens can be foreign substances like bacteria, viruses, or toxins, as well as non-infectious substances like pollen, food proteins, or even cells from another person (in the case of organ transplants). Antigens are typically large molecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides, or glycoproteins, that are recognized by the immune system as foreign.

Antibody: An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen. Antibodies are produced by specialized white blood cells called B cells, and they are specifically tailored torecognize and bind to a particular antigen. Each antibody has a unique binding site, known as the antigen-binding site or paratope, which matches the shape and chemical structure of a specific antigen.Antigen-antibody reactions are central to many aspects of the immune response, including immunity to infectious diseases, allergic reactions, autoimmune disorders, and the detection of antigens in diagnostic tests such as immunoassays and serological tests. Understanding these interactions is crucial for developing vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic tools for various diseases.

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